Adults with persistent or potential intracardiac shunts remain at risk for paradoxical embolism. Paradoxical emboli can occur even through shunts that are predominantly left-to-right because during the cardiac cycle, there can be small transient reversals of the shunt direction. Atrial septum defects (ASDs), ventricular septum defects (VSDs) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are the most common adult congenital heart defects. The degree of left-to-right shunting as assessed by the ratio of flow in the pulmonary (Qp) and systemic circulation (Qs) is crucial in the management of these vaginaxx.xyz by:
The shunts used in the palliation are associated with problems such as narrowing (stenosis), high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery or causing excess volume load .